An unplanned pregnancy quickly changed that. Completing an associate degree, she agreed to have Gage move in so the couple could work and save on rent while raising Zoey together. Even though they didn't see marriage as a serious option for now — in part to avoid the additional stress of planning and paying for a wedding, she says — neither was having Pulte live on her own as a single mother.
"For a while, my father was kind of shocked about the whole thing, but ultimately he was just excited to be a grandfather," she said with a chuckle. The couple is getting child care tips from the nonprofit Any Baby Can, which also helps them with physical therapy for Zoey, who was born with health ailments.
The numbers are based on the government's National Survey of Family Growth, typically issued every four years. It provides the only government data on cohabiting mothers by asking questions on a woman's relationship status before and after conception and childbirth. Women who say they were single before conception and then married before childbirth are counted as someone who had a post-conception, or "shotgun" marriage; those who moved in with their boyfriends after pregnancy had a post-conception or "shotgun" cohabitation.
Demographers say the cohabiting trend among new parents is likely to continue. Social stigma regarding out-of-wedlock births is loosening, and economic factors play a role. Many couples, especially those who lack a bachelor's degree, are postponing marriage until their finances are more stable. But because of globalization, automation and outsourcing, good-paying middle-income jobs are harder to come by.
"Because marriages are becoming more polarized by economic status, I don't see the trend of shotgun cohabitations reversing any time soon," said Casey Copen, a demographer at the government's National Center for Health Statistics, which administers the government survey.